Passover has already passed this year (is that redundant?). That being said, I can’t wait another year to share what I’ve recently learned!
Matthew 26:30 (HCSB)
26As they were eating, Jesus took bread, blessed and broke it, gave it to the disciples, and said, “Take and eat it; this is My body.”
27Then He took a cup, and after giving thanks, He gave it to them and said, “Drink from it, all of you.
28For this is My blood that establishes the covenant; it is shed for many for the forgiveness of sins.
29But I tell you, from this moment I will not drink of this fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it in a new way in My Father’s kingdom with you.”
30After singing psalms, they went out to the Mount of Olives.
In the scriptures, you will find a song for Moses, Miriam, and Mary, but you won’t find one for Yeshua or Jesus. Yet it’s right here in front of our noses.
Jesus being fully a Jew would have taken Passover with his disciples as prescribed in the Mishnah (oral traditions) unless He, being the Word incarnate, was doing something new.
Three Matzot were used, symbolizing the trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit), made from unleavened bread (not puffed up). In Jewish tradition, the middle piece was broken which we now know represented the Son. Half of it is hidden for little children to find it.
Do you think Jesus was giving them Himself, the middle matzah, broken for them? I do.
I wonder if the tradition of sending children to seek the broken matzah relates to this verse?
Matthew 18:3 (HCSB)
3″I assure you,” He said, “unless you are converted and become like children, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven.
Part of the Jewish Passover tradition was four cups of wine.
The first cup was the cup of sanctification (I will bring you out). The second cup was the cup of plagues, drunk before the meal and not mentioned here (I will free you from slavery). The third cup was the cup of redemption which is the one mentioned here (I will redeem you). The fourth cup was the cup of completion which is not shared, but referred to. Here, Jesus redefines the tradition to show that the completion is when we drink wine with Jesus after he comes again and the wedding feast takes place – Revelation 19:9 (I will take you as my own).
Jesus is also redefining the cup of redemption to show that redemption comes through accepting and taking in His blood shed for the forgiveness of sins along with his sacrifice (matzah, body) being broken for us that we might become whole and holy.
The reference is small, yet profound. Which Psalms did they sing together? I didn’t even know Jesus sang, did you? Of course he would, being a Rabbi. As part of the Passover tradition, Jesus would have been singing the Psalms of Hallel which traditionally cover Psalms 113-118.
Hallel is one of many Hebrew words to praise. I was taught that this word is accompanied by an action of extending both hands high in the air (faith without deeds is dead from a Jewish perspective).
While I won’t be looking at all the references, I want to focus on the pinnacle of Hallel, Psalm 118.
If you study the text carefully, you may discover like me that this Psalm is really pointing to Jesus. I wonder if Jesus’ disciples got that the song they were singing was right in their midst? I wonder if they understood the references that described what Jesus was about to do, or did that understanding come when they were walking with Jesus after His resurrection (Emmaus walk – Luke 24:32)?
I want to highlight some verses from the Psalm:
Psalm 118 begins and ends with the same text as bookends. A common literary device in scripture is a chaism that has the meat in the middle.
1 “Give thanks to the LORD, for he is good; his faithful love endures forever.”
The Hebrew word for love used here (checed), sometimes translated as mercy, can be described as a the intersection of faithfulness, loyalty, and steadfast love.
Psalm 118:14-29 (NKJV)
14 The LORD is my strength and song,
And He has become my salvation.
15 The voice of rejoicing and salvation
Is in the tents of the righteous;
The right hand of the LORD does valiantly.
16 The right hand of the LORD is exalted;
The right hand of the LORD does valiantly.
17 I shall not die, but live,
And declare the works of the LORD.
18 The LORD has chastened me severely,
But He has not given me over to death.
19 Open to me the gates of righteousness;
I will go through them,
And I will praise the LORD.
20 This is the gate of the LORD,
Through which the righteous shall enter.
21 I will praise You,
For You have answered me,
And have become my salvation.
22 The stone which the builders rejected
Has become the chief cornerstone.
23 This was the LORD’s doing;
It is marvelous in our eyes.
24 This is the day the LORD has made;
We will rejoice and be glad in it.
25 Save now, I pray, O LORD;
O LORD, I pray, send now prosperity.
26 Blessed is he who comes in the name of the LORD!
We have blessed you from the house of the LORD.
27 God is the LORD,
And He has given us light;
Bind the sacrifice with cords to the horns of the altar.
28 You are my God, and I will praise You;
You are my God, I will exalt You.
29 Oh, give thanks to the LORD, for He is good!
For His mercy endures forever.
In verse 14, Jesus has just become their song and their salvation (Jesus is LORD). Wow!
In verse 19, I don’t find the word ‘the’ in the Hebrew, instead I see first person references. I believe it would read more like ‘open my gates of righteousness, I will enter them, thank you God.’ Jesus is returning to the Father.
פִּתְחוּ־לִי שַׁעֲרֵי־צֶדֶק אָבֹא־בָם אוֹדֶה יָהּ
In verse 20, it has been translated ‘this is the gate of the LORD, but the lamed prefix is usually translated ‘to’. This could be paraphrased as ‘This is the gate to the Father (I am), the righteous will enter through me.’ I wonder if His disciples picked up on Jesus calling himself the ‘gate’ to salvation and that righteousness had to come through Him?
זֶה־הַשַּׁעַר לַיהוָה צַדִּיקִים יָבֹאוּ בוֹ
In verse 24, this verse is often taken out of context. Which day were they to rejoice? The day of Passover which begins at sundown. Why? It’s proscribed in Exodus 12:14, because it marked their day of deliverance, but what else might it be saying in a new covenant? I believe that this new Passover is to celebrate the love that is the culmination of this song of praise. The love is demonstrated in verse 27.
In verse 27 in the language of symbols, light is a metaphor for truth, illumination, or understanding.
I believe another way that the Hebrew could read is as follows: The LORD God has become light to us (I am the light of the world). Bind the festival sacrifice with cords to the horns of the altar.
אֵל יְהוָה וַיָּאֶר לָנוּ אִסְרוּ־חַג בַּעֲבֹתִים עַד־קַרְנוֹת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ
This song was about Jesus becoming the sacrificial lamb of God to be sacrificed as a Passover lamb, once and only once for the sins of the world. It is the greatest expression of love the world will ever know. The altar was in the shape of a cross.
Wow, imagine singing this song with Jesus after sharing the Passover meal, rich with symbolism! The symbolism that they had previously learned had just been turned upside down.
This is the song of Hallel or we might call it the Jeshua or Jesus song. He has become our song and our salvation (Yeshua in Hebrew).
1 John 3:16a
By this we know love, because He laid down His life for us.
For God so loved the world…